Chase, Richard. Walt Whitman Reconsidered. New York: William Sloane, 1955.

Erkkila, Betsy. Whitman the Political Poet. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 

Kaplan, Justin. Walt Whitman: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980.

Klammer, Martin. Whitman, Slavery and the Emergence of Leaves of Grass. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1995.

Loving, Jerome. Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Mancuso, Luke. The Strange Sad War Revolving: Walt Whitman, Reconstruction, and the Emergence of Black Citizenship, 1865-1876. Columbia: Camden House, 1997.

Rose, Anne C. Victorian America and the Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Sweet, Timothy. Traces of War: Poetry, Photography, and the Crisis of the Union. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. 

Thomas, M. Wynn. "Fratricide and Brotherly Love: Whitman and the Civil War." In The Cambridge Companion to Walt Whitman, edited by Ezra Greenspan, 27-44, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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