Nineteenth-century Sources

Anon. "The Glass Of Fashion." Vanity Fair (Sept. 28, 1861).

Bell, J. D. "Manliness." Ladies' Repository 19.7 (July, 1859): 405-9.

Bowditch, Henry I. A Brief Plea For An Ambulance System For The Army Of The United States, As Drawn From The Extra Sufferings Of The Late Lieut. Bowditch And A Wounded Comrade. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1863.

Brockett, L. P. The Camp, The Battlefield, and the Hospital; or Lights and Shadows of the Great Rebellion. Philadelphia: National Publishing Co., 1866.

Brockett, L. P., and Mrs. Mary C. Vaughan. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism, and Patience. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co., 1867.

Calder, Ellen M. "Personal Recollections of Walt Whitman." Atlantic Monthly 99.6 (June 1907).

Cumming, Kate. Kate: The Journal of a Confederate Nurse. Ed. Richard Barksdale Harwell. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State U P, 1987.

Donaldson, Thomas. Walt Whitman The Man. New York: Francis P. Harper, 1896.

Livermore, Mary A. The Story of the War: The Civil War Memoirs of the Famous Nurse, Relief Organizer and Suffragette. 1887. Introd. Nina Silber. New York: Da Capo, 1995.

Ropes, Hannah. Civil War Nurse: Diary and Letters of Hannah Ropes. Ed. John R. Brumgardt. U Tennessee P, 1980.

Sneden, Robert Knox. Eye of the Storm: A Civil War Odyssey. Ed. Charles F. Bryan, Jr., and Nelson D. Lankford. New York: The Free Press, 2000.

Watson, William. Letters of a Civil War Surgeon. Ed. Paul Fatout. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation, 1961.

Whitman, George Washington. Civil War Letters of George Washington Whitman. Ed. Jerome Loving. Durham: Duke U P, 1975.

Whitman, Walt. Calamus: A Series of Letters Written during the Years 1868-1880, by Walt Whitman to a Young Friend (Peter Doyle). Ed. Richard Maurice Bucke. Boston: L. Maynard, 1897.

Worthington, C. J., ed. The Woman in Battle: A Narrative of the Exploits, Adventures, and Travels of . . . Harry T. Buford. Richmond: Dustin, Gilman & Co., 1876.

Young, Agatha [pseud.]. The Women and the Crisis: Women of the North in the Civil War. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1959.


Secondary Sources

Attie, Jeanie. Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War. Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1998.

Bérubé, Alan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Lesbians in World War Two. New York: The Free Press, 1990.

Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: David McKay, 1959.

Bush, Russell. Affectionate Men: A Photographic History of a Century of Male Couples. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Butler, Judith. "Critically Queer." GLQ 1.1 (1993).

---. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Clinton, Catherine, and Nina Silber, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War. New York: Oxford, 1992.

D'Emilio, John. "Capitalism and Gay Identity" in The Gay and Lesbian Studies Reader, eds., Henry Abelove, Michèle Barale, and David Halperin. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Davis, Robert Leigh. Whitman and the Romance of Medicine. Berkeley: U of California P, 1997.

Deitcher, David. Dear Friends: American Photographs Of Men Together, 1840-1918. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001.

Denney, Robert E. Civil War Medicine: Care & Comfort of the Wounded. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1995.

Erkkila, Betsy. Whitman the Political Poet. New York: Oxford U P, 1997.

Fredrickson, George. The Inner Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

Freemon, Frank R. Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care During the American Civil War. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson U P, 1998.

Hall, Richard. Patriots in Disguise: Women Warriors of the Civil War. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1993.

Halperin, David. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Jehlen, Myra. "Gender." Critical Terms for Literary Study. Ed. Lentricchia and McLaughlin. 2nd edition. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995.

Kelley, Michael. "The Chandler Boys." <>.

Leonard, Elizabeth D. Yankee Women: Gender Battles in the Civil War. New York: Norton, 1994.

Looby, Christopher. "'As Thoroughly Black as the Most Faithful Philanthropist Could Desire': Erotics of Race in Higginson's Army Life in a Black Regiment." Race and The Subject Of Masculinities. Ed. Harry Stecopoulos and Michael Uebel. Durham: Duke U P, 1997. 71-115.

McCaslin, Richard B. Portraits of Conflict: A Photographic History of North Carolina in the Civil War. Fayetteville: U of Arkansas Press, 1997.

Mitchell, Reid. Civil War Soldiers. New York: Viking, 1988.

---. The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home. New York: Oxford, 1993.

Myerson, Joel, ed. Whitman in His Own Time. Detroit: Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.

Neely, Mark E., Jr., et al. The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

---. The Union Image: Popular Prints of the Civil War North. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2000.

Nelson, Michael E. "Writing during Wartime: Gender and Literacy in the American Civil War." Journal of American Studies 31.1 (1997).

Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism. Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1989.

Rotundo, E. Anthony. American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. New York: Basic, 1993.

Rubel, David, and Russell Shorto, ed. The Civil War Chronicle. New York: Crown, 2000.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men : English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York : Columbia U P, 1992.

Silber, Nina. "Intemperate Men, Spiteful Women, and Jefferson Davis." Houses Divided: Gender and the Civil War. Ed. Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New York: Oxford, 1992.

---. The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, 1865-1900. Chapel Hill: U North Carolina P, 1993.

Todd, Gary L. "An Invalid Corps." Civil War Times Illustrated 60 (Dec. 1985).

Wilbur, C. Keith. Civil War Medicine. Old Saybrook, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 1988.

Young, Elizabeth. Disarming the Nation: Women's Writing and the American Civil War. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999.

Zwarg, Christina. Feminist Conversations: Emerson, Fuller, and the Play of Reading. Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1995.