Print Resources

Brawley, Benjamin. Early Negro American Writers: Selections with Biographical and Critical Introductions. 1935. Rpt. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries P, 1968.

Brown, William Wells. The Black Man, His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. New York: Thomas Hamilton, 1863.

Jackson, Blyden. A History of Afro-American Literature. Volume 1. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1989.

Levine, Robert S. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1997.

Loggins, Vernon. The Negro Author, His Development in America. New York: Columbia UP, 1931.

Miller, Floyd J. The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1975.

Newsom, M.T., ed. Arguments, Pro and Con, on the Call for a National Convention, to be Held in Cleveland, Ohio, August 24, 1854. Detroit: George E. Pomery & Co., 1854. [Includes Whitfield’s letters to Frederick Douglass advocating black emigration.]

Redmond, Eugene. Drumvoices: The Mission of Afro-American Poetry. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1976.

Robinson, William H. Early Black American Poets: Selections with Biographical and Critical Introductions. Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Co., 1969.

Sherman, Joan R. Invisible Poets: Afro-Americans of the Nineteenth Century. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1989.

Sherman, Joan R., Ed. African-American Poetry of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1992.

Wagner, Jean. Black Poets of the United States: From Paul Laurence Dunbar to Langston Hughes. Urbana: U of Illinois P., 1973.

Web Sites

Digital Schomburg: Images of 19th Century African Americans

The Martin Delany Home Page (includes numerous documents on the emigration controversy of the 1850s)

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